Precautions while using Shampoo

Precautions while using Shampoo

1 . Shampoos

Shampoos are cleaning formulations used for a wide range of applications, including personal care, pet use, and carpets. Most are manufactured in roughly the same manner. They are composed primarily of chemicals called surfactants that have the special ability to surround oily materials on surfaces and allow them to be rinsed away by water. Most commonly, shampoos are used for personal care, especially for washing the hair.

2 . History

Shampoos are cleaning formulations used for a wide range of applications, including personal care, pet use, and carpets. Most are manufactured in roughly the same manner. They are composed primarily of chemicals called surfactants that have the special ability to surround oily materials on surfaces and allow them to be rinsed away by water. Most commonly, shampoos are used for personal care, especially for washing the hair.

3 . Raw Materials

New shampoos are initially created by cosmetic chemists in the laboratory. These scientists begin by determining what characteristics the shampoo formula will have. They must decide on aesthetic features such as how thick it should be, what color it will be, and what it will smell like. They also consider performance attributes, such as how well it cleans, what the foam looks like, and how irritating it will be. Consumer testing often helps determine what these characteristics should be.

4 . Water

The primary ingredient in all shampoos is water, typically making up about 70 80% of the entire formula. Deionized water, which is specially treated to remove various particles and ions, is used in shampoos. The source of the water can be underground wells, lakes, or rivers.

5 . Ketoconazole Shampoo Description

Ketoconazole Shampoo, 2% is a red orange liquid for topical application, containing the broad spectrum synthetic antifungal agent ketoconazole in a concentration of 2% in an aqueous suspension. It also contains: coconut fatty acid diethanolamide, disodium laureth sulfosuccinate, FD C Red No. 40, hydrochloric acid, imidurea, laurdimonium hydroxypropyl hydrolyzed collagen, PEG 120 methyl glucose dioleate, purified water, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, and sodium lauryl ether sulfate.

6 . Ketoconazole Shampoo Clinical Pharmacology

Tinea (pityriasis) versicolor is a non contagious infection of the skin caused by Pityrosporumorbiculare (Malassezia furfur). This commensal organism is part of the normal skin flora. In susceptible individuals the condition is often recurrent and may give rise to hyperpigmented or hypopigmented patches on the trunk which may extend to the neck, arms and upper thighs. Treatment of the infection may not immediately result in restoration of pigment to the affected sites. Normalization of pigment following successful therapy is variable and may take months, depending on individual skin type and incidental skin exposure. The rate of recurrence of infection is variable.

7 . Indications and Usage for Ketoconazole Shampoo

Ketoconazole Shampoo, 2% is indicated for the treatment of tinea (pityriasis) versicolor caused by or presumed to be caused by Pityrosporumorbiculare (also known as Malassezia furfur or M. orbiculare). Note: Tinea (pityriasis) versicolor may give rise to hyperpigmented or hypopigmented patches on the trunk which may extend to the neck, arms and upper thighs. Treatment of the infection may not immediately result in normalization of pigment to the affected sites. Normalization of pigment following successful therapy is variable and may take months, depending on individual skin type and incidental sun exposure. Although tinea versicolor is not contagious, it may recur because the organism that causes the disease is part of the normal skin flora.

8 . Contraindications

Ketoconazole Shampoo, 2% is contraindicated in persons who have known hypersensitivity to the active ingredient or excipients of this formulation. Only apply shampoo to your scalp and massage gently. Don t pile your hair on top and scrub it, as this will only create knots. Work the shampoo gently down to the ends of your hair and rinse thoroughly.

9 . Precautions

Severe hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have been reported during post marketing use of Ketoconazole Shampoo, 2%. If a reaction suggesting sensitivity or chemical irritation should occur, use of the medication should be discontinued.

10 . Pregnancy

There are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women. Ketoconazole should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. In humans, ketoconazole is not detected in plasma after chronic shampooing on the scalp. Ketoconazole has been shown to be teratogenic (syndactylia and oligodactylia) in the rat when given orally in the diet at 80 mg/kg/day (a dose 10 times the maximum recommended human oral dose). However, these effects may be related to maternal toxicity, which was seen at this and higher dose levels.